Dark Stormy Seas of Slavery Still Linger, Very Much So…

Every time I watch a Documentary on Slavery, it always brings me back to my own Research on the Subject. And I still find so much on the Subject that is conveniently left out of History Books and never Taught. Not taught in school. But by word of mouth from one generation to the next..and it’s a Lost Art. My books bring back those words of mouth teachings to Life. ? A Panther’s Father Book Series.

Photo by Emiliano Arano on Pexels.com

But the thing that still brings my mind to questions that people won’t talk about.

Let’s look at CLOTILDA

Above ship might be similar to the Last Slave Ship.

Sure, it’s all a Tragedy of the Highest Order. But the thing that still puzzles me is How West Africa is being Left Off the Hook on Slavery?

Man, do you realize that there is an Estimated 12 Million Slaves taken to Brazil and who exploited the Heck out of them? And around Two Million died in transportation or the Trip in the Atlantic.

For The Past Slave Ship in America. These slaves were purchased in what was to become BENIN. it’s in South Africa. But who, exactly who. We’re selling all of these Slaves? An estimated 12 Million went to America and another to Brazil. And other Countries purchased Slaves as well and some have done an amazing Job of hiding this from the World Today.

But why and How have these Slaved Seller Records in Africa merely disappeared like they did no wrong. Man, who was selling these People as Slaves? Who looked with a “who cares” attitude as these Men and Women were being Sold? And sure, there are horrible tales and some not nearly as bad. But if we want the Truth of the entire thing. We must have accountability from West and South Africa and any other country selling Slaves. Just like the Mexican Cartels are doing today. And China is doing too.

China and Brazil both have a History of Slavery and its easy for them to engage in Human Trafficking than other Countries who have not engaged in Slavery. But which ones?

Today, most people can think of at least one example of a possible Human Trafficking Victim but said nothing.




Slavery in Brazil!

Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1516, with members of one tribe enslaving captured members of another.[1] Later, colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions called bandeiras (“Flags”, from the flag of Portugal they carried in a symbolic claiming of new lands for the country). The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.Slavery in Brazil by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839). Two enslaved people enduring brutal punishment in 19th-century Brazil; the man in the foreground has been bucked.

During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil imported more enslaved Africans than any other country. An estimated 4.9 million enslaved people from Africa were imported to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866.[2] Until the early 1850s, most enslaved African people who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports, especially in Luanda (present-day Angola).

Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, and sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600 to 1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of enslaved African people to power this newly profitable mining. Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, and population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining.

Demand for enslaved Africans did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied heavily on slave labor. 1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700 to 1800, and the rise of coffee in the 1830s further expanded the Atlantic slave trade.

Brazil was the last country in the Western world to abolish the enslavement of human beings. By the time slavery was abolished, on May 13, 1888, an estimated 5.8 million enslaved people had been kidnapped from Africa to Brazil. This was 40% of the total number of enslaved people trafficked from Africa to the Americas, according to one estimate,[3] while another source estimated the total as high as 12.5 million, which would push this percentage to over 45%. Of the total, only 10.7 million slaves survived the journey.[4]


Slave identities

In colonial Brazil, identity became a complex combination of race, skin color, and socioeconomic status because of the extensive diversity of both the slave and free population. For example, in 1872 43% of the population was free mulattoes and blacks. As shown by “Family Dining,” a painting created by Jean-Baptiste Debret, Slaves in Brazil were often assigned new identities that reflected the status of their masters. The painting clearly depicts five slaves serving their two masters in a dining room. The slaves are depicted wearing clothing and jewelry which reflect that of their masters. For instance, the female slave on the far left side of the painting is depicted wearing a nice dress, necklaces, earrings, and a headband in the reflection of what the female slaveholder (second from the far left) is wearing: a nice dress, necklace, and headband; this was done to further display the power and wealth of slaveholders. There are four broad categories that show the general divisions among the identities of the slave and ex-slave populations: African-born slaves, African-born ex-slaves, Brazilian-born slaves, and Brazilian-born ex-slaves.Family dining by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1834–1839). A Brazilian family in Rio de Janeiro

African-born slaves

This painting by Johann Moritz Rugendas depicts a scene below deck of a slave ship headed to Brazil. Rugendas was an eyewitness to the scene.

A slave’s identity was stripped when sold into the slave trade, and they were assigned a new identity that was to be immediately adopted in stride. This new identity often came in the form of a new name, created by a Christian or Portuguese first name randomly issued by the baptizing priest, and followed by the label of an African nation. In Brazil, these “labels” were predominantly AngolaCongo, Yoruba, Ashanti, Rebolo, Anjico, Gabon, and Mozambique.[48] Often these names served as a way for Europeans to divide Africans in a familiar manner, disregarding ethnicity or origin. Anthropologist Jack Goody stated, “Such new names served to cut the individuals off from their kinfolk, their society, from humanity itself and at the same time emphasized their servile status”.[48]

A critical part of the initiation of any sort of collective identity for African-born slaves began with relationships formed on slave ships crossing the middle passage. Shipmates called each other malungos, and this relationship was considered as important and valuable as the relationship with their wives and children. Malungos were often ethnically related as well, for slaves shipped on the same boat were usually from similar geographical regions of Africa.[48]

African-born ex-slaves

One of the most important markers of the freedom of a slave was the adoption of a last name upon being freed. These names would often be the family names of their ex-owners, either in part or in full. Since many slaves had the same or similar Christian name assigned from their baptism, it was common for a slave to be called both their Portuguese or Christian name as well as the name of their master. “Maria, for example, became known as Sr. Santana’s Maria”. Thus, it was mostly a matter of convenience when a slave was freed for him or her to adopt the surname of their ex-owner for assimilation into the community as a free person.[48]

Obtaining freedom was not a guarantee of escape from poverty or from many aspects of slave life. Frequently legal freedom did not come with a change in occupation for the ex-slave. However, there was increased opportunity for both sexes to become involved in wage earning. Women ex-slaves largely dominated market places selling food and goods in urban areas like Salvador, while a significant percent of African-born men freed from slavery became employed as skilled artisans, including work as sculptors, carpenters, and jewelers.[48]

Another area of income important to African-born ex-slaves was their own work as slavers upon being granted their freedom. In fact, purchase of slaves was a standard practice for ex-slaves who could afford it. This is evidence of the lack of a common identity among those born in Africa and shipped to Brazil, for it was much more common for ex-slaves to engage in the slave trade themselves than to take up any cause related to abolition or resistance to slavery.[48]

Brazilian-born slaves and ex-slaves

Punishing slaves at Calabouco, in Rio de Janeiro, c. 1822

A Brazilian-born slave was born into slavery, meaning their identity was based on very different factors than those of the African-born who had once known legal freedom. Skin color was a significant factor in determining the status of African descendants born in Brazil: lighter-skinned slaves had both higher chances of manumission as well as better social mobility if they were granted freedom, making it important in the identity of both Brazilian-born slaves and ex-slaves.[48]

The term crioulo was primarily used in the early 19th century, and meant Brazilian-born and black. Mulatto was used to refer to lighter-skinned Brazilian-born Africans, who often were children of both African and European descent. As compared to their African-born counterparts, manumission for long-term good behavior or obedience upon the owner’s death was much more likely. Thus, unpaid manumission was a much more likely path to freedom for Brazilian-born slaves than for Africans, as well as manumission in general.[49] Mulattoes also had a higher incidence of manumission, most likely because of the likelihood that they were the children of a slave and an owner.[48]

Race relationsEdit

Francisco Paulo de Almeida (1826-1901), first and only Baron of Guaraciaba, title granted by Princess Isabel.[50] Negro, he possessed one of the greatest fortunes of the imperial period, getting to own approximately one thousand slaves.[50][51]

These color divides reinforced racial barriers between African and Brazilian slaves, and often created animosity between them. These differences were heightened after freedom was granted, for lighter skin correlated with social mobility and the greater chance an ex-slave could distance him- or herself from their former slave life. Thus, mulattoes and lighter-skinned ex-slaves had larger opportunity to improve their socioeconomic status within the confines of the colonial Brazilian social structure. As a consequence, self-segregation was common, as mulattoes preferred to separate their identity as much as possible from blacks. One way this is visible is from data on church marriages during the 19th century. Church marriage was an expensive affair, and one only the more successful ex-slaves were able to afford, and these marriages were also almost always endogamous. The fact that skin color largely dictated possible partners in marriage promoted racial distinctions as well. Interracial marriage was a rarity, and was almost always a case of a union between a white man and a mulatto woman.[48]